In El Congreso, a short story by Jorge Luis Borges, the lead character, Alejandro Ferri, sets out to find the perfect language for a secret society whose aim is to create a congress that represents all of humanity. This story is fascinating in many ways; for example, you might ask how a society can be both secret and represent all of humanity at the same time. But I was especially intrigued by the constructed languages that Ferri considers (but not ultimately accepts) as the universal language.
Anyone who's ever learned a second language knows the feeling that language is unnecessarily complex: irregular verb conjugations, cases (i.e. modifying a noun to indicate its role in a sentence), etc. Awful! So what could be more convenient than a rational language that has been designed with a limited and fixed set of rules? A language of reason, or Lingvo de kialo in Esperanto!
Esperanto and Voläpuk are two such languages, both created at the end of the 19th century. Voläpuk, which I'd never heard of before reading El Congreso, doesn't appear to have stood the test of time. But Esperanto is alive and well; it might not have become the universal language that it was designed to be, but it has a small following, its own Wikipedia with over 200,000 articles, and it is supported by Google Translate and Duolingo (a free platform for learning languages).
I've taken a few Esperanto lessons on Duolingo, and it's ...